I schooled a horse today who wore a Pelham, so I thought it was a good excuse to revise my knowledge of this bit and educate my readers.
As kids Pelhams were commonly seen, along with Kimblewicks, on strong and fast ponies. It isn`t dressage legal though, which is a great limitation of it`s use. Even when I was a bit older most of us used Pelhams instead of double bridles in the show ring. My pony has a tiny mouth so found two bits too much for his mouth. I always used two reins though so that it most mimicked the action of the double.
That`s where the Pelham comes from; it was developed in an attempt to replicate the action of the double bridle with only one mouthpiece. This bit also has a curb chain. For some people, it is a useful halfway house in the training of a horse as it introduces the action of the curb and poll pressure without overfilling the young mouth. Once the horse has acclimatised to the Pelham the double bridle is introduced.
For this reason some people criticise the Pelham as a bit, because it is neither a snaffle nor a double bridle so it gives mixed messages to the horse by acting on numerous parts of the head. Personally, I think the Pelham has it`s uses but I despise the leather roundings used to combine the two reins into one as to me this is mixing messages even more. With two reins the curb, or lower rein, can be utilised when necessary so pressure on the poll and curb is limited and more accurate. The upper rein acts more as a snaffle on the bars of the mouth in this situation. With two reins pressure is constantly exerted on the poll and curb so I feel the horse becomes desensitised to the pressure so less responsive if they should get strong.
The majority of Pelham bits are straight bars, but you do see the jointed Pelham which is not pleasant as the triangle forms between the two bars of the Pelham and the curb chain, which crushes the lower jaw and counteracts the action of the curb rein. The ported mouthpiece provides space for a tongue, but can act on the roof of the mouth which is particularly painful. The vulcanite Pelham is seen as the mildest mouthpiece as it doesn`t exert pressure directly on the bars of the mouth, but I`m not a huge fan as these Pelhams can often look oversized on horses or ponies. I prefer the metal version, or a thinner vulcanite mouthpiece if there is such a thing.
So why use a Pelham bit? It is, as I said earlier, useful for horses with short, thick jaws who struggle with both bits in the double bridle. A lot of horse`s go nicely in a Pelham, and it`s been suggested that this is because of the multitude of pressure points, and the fact that the action is not too demanding. However, Pelhams are notorious for rubbing the lips and corners of the mouth, even when fitted correctly. There is also more poll pressure compared to the double bridle because the cheek above the mouthpiece is longer to accommodate the large bridoon ring, which some horses may react badly to.
There are other notable designs of Pelham, such as the Sam Marsh Pelham, the Rugby Pelham, the Army Universal, and interestingly, the Kimblewick. On this subject, some people consider that the three ring gag should belong in the Pelham family, not the Gag family.